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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
2     "">
3<html xmlns="" xml:lang="en">
4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Measurement and Experimental technology"
5   --><!--#set var="location"     value="messtechnik"
6   --><!--#set var="url_de"       value="kommunikationstechnik/messtechnik.shtm"
7   --><!--#set var="prev"         value="fax.shtm"
8   --><!--#set var="prev_title"   value="Fax engineering"
9   --><!--#set var="next"         value="/en/computer/electro-mechanical.shtm"
10   --><!--#set var="next_title"   value="(Elektro-) mechamical calculators"
11 --><title>Technikum29 - <!--#echo var="title" --></title>
13    <!--#include virtual="/en/inc/" -->
14    <meta name="keywords" lang="de" content="Messtechnik, Spiegelgalvanometer, Szintillationsme&szlig;platz" />
15    <meta name="DC.Title" content="technikum29 - <!--#echo var="title" -->" />
16    <meta name="DC.Subject" content="<!--#echo var="title" -->" />
17    <meta name="t29.SVN" content="$Id: measurement.shtm 109 2009-08-19 17:34:35Z sven $" />
18    <meta name="t29.germanoriginal" content="22.07.2007/v5.7.23" />
19    <meta name="t29.thistranslation" content="27.07.2007/v5.7.23" />
20    <meta name="t29.comment" content="neu: AEG-Oszi, Schulelektronikbild geaendert" />
21    <!--changelog: 19.04.2006/v5.5BETA based on 13.04.2006/v5.4.1(De) -->
22    <!--changelog: 19.08.2007/v5.7.5 -->
23    <!--changelog: 15.09.2007/v5.7.8 based on 18.07.2007/v5.7FINAL: Kaiserzeit ersetzt, morsing sache auch -->
26<!--#echo encoding="none" var="heading" -->
27<div id="content">
28    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
30    <p>Measurement- and Experimental technology can link Communication and Computer
31       Technology. Measurement technology has a long history and there have been nice and
32       remarkable devices.</p>
34    <p>Professionals can see many beautiful measurement devices, from the complex mirror galvanometer (a piece from the German Kaiserzeit) to the scintillation measuring station with counting devices from several epoches (since 1956), used for measurement of radioactivity.</p>
37    <div class="box left">
38         <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/experimente.jpg" alt="Some of the experimental physics devices" width="396" height="451" class="nomargin-bottom" />
39         <p class="bildtext">
40           This picture shows some devices from the "experimental physics" area. You
41           will probably note the use of "natural" materials (wood, glass, metal) and the
42           well-designed very simplified interface that makes comprehension simple.
43           <br/>We will go into detail for some of the devices shown on the left.
44         </p>
45         <div class="clear"></div>
46    </div>
48      <div class="box left">
49            <img src="/shared/photos/start/universalmessgeraet2.jpg" alt="Fotografie des Universalmeßgerätes" width="396" height="300" class="nomargin-bottom" />
50            <p class="bildtext">
51               This is a remarkably functional, big and beautiful all-purpose measurement device made by Siemens &amp; Halske (about 1905). At that time even simple objects of utulity were made lovely detailed. This device was used as auxiliary device for morsing purposes in the national administration of the German Empire.
52            </p>
53            <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
54      </div>
56      <div class="box right">
57          <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/galvanometer.jpg" alt="Galvometers" width="321" height="275" class="nomargin-bottom" />
58          <p class="bildtext">This is only an example from the early measurement technique: any galvanometer from the 20s. The lovely, sumptuous and nice design of the appearance is unmistakable, althought it is only a simple customer equipment.</p>
59          <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
60      </div>
62      <div class="box left">
63           <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/h&amp;b-galvanometer.jpg" alt="Photography of a mirror galvanometer" width="396" height="436" />
64           <div class="bildtext">
65             <p>Until the invention of measurement amplifiers, measuring very small voltages
66             and currents was a big problem. To do that job, moving coil devices had to be
67             very sensitive. This was realized with a moving coil that was mounted on a
68             torsion wire. The reflecting mirror at the lower end of the wire was spotted by
69             a light ray, so the whole composition acts like a very long "light needle".
70             By this way very long needle lengths (multiple meters) could be simulated.
71             Such a galvanometer must be set up absolutely horizontally and vibration-free.
72             <br/>The <b>Mirror Galvanometer</b> by Hartmann&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Braun is
73             a simple and functional demonstration model from the 1920s.</p>
74           </div>
75           <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
76    </div>
78    <div class="box left">
79        <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/loewe-kathodenstrahl.jpg" alt="Photography of the cathode ray tube" width="396" height="189" />
80        <p class="bildtext">
81            At the time where there was no television and no oscilloscope yet, the
82            <b>Cathode Ray Tube</b> was a sensation, especially at school. This was one of
83            the very first experiments where students could see that electrons have
84            almost no inertia, so they can be deflected easily at the presence of an
85            electric field.
86            <br/>This tube (with power supply on the left) from the German company
87            <b>Loewe</b> is an historical piece from the 1930s. It measures about
88            50&nbsp;cm!
89        </p>
90        <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
91   </div>
94    <!-- paragraph: AEG Oszi. Translated/Started at 28.07.08-->
95    <div class="box right">
96          <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/aeg-oszi.jpg" alt="Photography of an AEG oscilloscope" width="425" height="419" class="nomargin-bottom" />
97                  <p class="bildtext">
98              After the currency reform in West Germany, the production
99              of mesurement devices got going again. This AEG
100              oscilloscope was built in 1949. It seems to be an exact
101              replica from an AEG device of the late thirties. It is
102              equipped with steel tubes that were put on the German
103              market at 1938. Neither the time base of the horizontal
104              deflection nor the amplitude of the vertical deflection
105              are callibrated by the manufacturer. To measure
106              absolutely with this device, you always need reference sizes.
107          </p>
108          <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
109      </div>
111      <div class="box left">
112          <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/phywe-oszi.jpg" alt="Photography of a Phywe demonstration oscilloscope" width="396" height="269" class="nomargin-bottom" />
113          <p class="bildtext">
114             The "Physikalischen Werkst&auml;tten" (<i>phsyical facilities</i>), <b>Phywe</b>,
115             have built this small oscilloscope for demonstration purposes that can be
116             used to show the electromagnetic interaction of an electron beam in E/B fields.
117             Since (CRT driven) television got a mass medium, these experiments
118             were state-of-art at those days.
119          </p>
120          <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
121       </div>
123    <div class="box left">
124          <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/neva-funktechnik.jpg" alt="Photography of the Neva Experimental system" width="396" height="280" class="nomargin-bottom" />
125          <p class="bildtext">With the <b>NEVA radio technology system</b>, students could
126            do challenging experiments like measuring the wave lengths in the VHF area
127            with the Lecher lines. <!-- Das mit den 300V ist Bloedsinn, weil die Stroeme
128            niedrig sind => ungefaehrlich. -->
129          </p>
130          <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
131    </div>
133    <div class="box left">
134        <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/digitalexperimentiersystem.jpg" alt="photography of an electronic experimental system for use in schools" width="396" height="509" class="nomargin-bottom" />
135        <p class="bildtext">This big white board is an experience system from
136          <b>Leybold</b> from the early 1970s. At that time, the subject
137          "digital electonics" was taught in the school. Students could set up
138          logic systems like binary counters, full adders, flip-flops, multiplexer,
139          etc. This was quite fascinating for students at that time. Today, in ordinary
140          schools, there is no more time for electronics in the curriculars.</p>
141        <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
142    </div>
144    <div class="box left">
145       <img src="/shared/photos/kommunikationstechnik/frequenz-ereigniszaehler.jpg" alt="Photography of different frequency- and event counters" width="396" height="500" class="nomargin-bottom" />
146       <p class="bildtext"><b>Calculating requires counting</b>
147         <br/>Last but not least we show a composition of (frequency) counters from
148         different epoches. There are, among others, devices equipped with tubes (57
149         electron tubes) or discrete transistor logic (mostly germanium).
150         The different counting tubes (e.g. E1T or GC10B) and the very different
151         display types are quite impressive.</p>
152       <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
153    </div>
154</div><!-- end of content -->
155<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/" -->
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