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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'kommerzielle';
3        $version = '$Id: commercial.php 363 2013-03-16 21:37:31Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'Early commercial computers';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8    <h2>Early commercial computers</h2>
9
10    <p>In contrast to computers used for scientific applications, commercial data processing systems have a different structure, since they are optimized to support large storage systems and to process lots of data, as in payroll applications and the like. Sometimes the distinction between scientific and commercial systems is not a clear one. The examples below are typical small to medium systems for commercial applications.</p>
11
12        <h3>Olivetti P 203</h3>
13    <div class="box right clear-after">
14       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/olivetti_p203.jpg" alt="Olivetti P203" width="406" height="378" />
15       <div class="bildtext">
16          <p>In 1968 the Olivetti P 101 with enlarged memory capacity was coupled with an electric typewriter which led to a system capable of printing the results of computations directly. This system is of a remarkable design and won quite some prizes for Olivetti in its time. Later machines made by Olivetti departed from that and were packaged in simple cubic enclosures.</p>
17        </div>
18    </div>
19
20    <h3>NCR 446</h3>   
21    <div class="box center">
22        <a href="/en/devices/ncr446.php" name="ncr-backlink"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ncr-446.jpg" alt="Photography of the NCR 446" width="694" height="520" /></a>
23        </div>
24       
25    The <b>NCR 446</b> is a typical example of a 2nd generation computer
26(transistorized).
27It was developed 1966/67 in Germany at the "National Registrier Kassen GmbH"
28in Augsburg by four engineers fresh from the university. One year later their
29development was finished and the system announced.<br>
30
31The architecture is rather unique. Programs are stored on a paper tape while
32operations are controlled by means of a threaded wire ROM. The system was
33sold as a accounting machine but was not limited to that area of application.<br>
34
35The system not only contains the paper tape reader for the program control,
36but also two paper tape readers for input data, one paper tape punch, a
37keyboard, and an IBM ball-head typewriter. <br>
38
39This system was quite expensive. The basic model without a paper tape punch
40and without the additional paper tape readers for data input was sold for about
4135,000 DM (about 18,000 EUR) - about as much as three mid-class cars would
42have cost at the same time.<br>
43
44The NCR 446 was the first "small" commercial system which was able to print
45text as well as numerical values. Such a machine was used by structural
46engineers to perform the necessary calculations and directly generate a
47printout that could be used by the customer. (Competing systems like the
48Olivetti Programma 101, 203 could only print plain numbers on a small strip
49of paper.)<br>
50
51Watching the operation of the machine is a great experience. Things like the
52calculation of a square root allow the viewer to get an idea of the
53underlying algorithm. Since the program is stored on a paper tape, every step performed
54by the machine can be seen.<br>
55<br/>Clicking on the picture yields a <href="/en/devices/ncr446.php">more detailed picture</a></p>
56
57<h5 id="acc">Paper tape accessories:</h5>
58               
59                <p>Also interesting are typical paper tape accessories as shown below. It is
60next to incredible that not too far ago programs had to be prepared with
61tools like these. The figure below shows a manual paper tape punch on the left
62which can be used to punch programs on a paper tape. For the most basic version
63of the NCR 446 which lacked the attached paper tape punch, this was the only
64way to create program tapes!</p>
65               
66                <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
67        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/handlocher.jpg"  width="682" height="428" />
68        <div class="bildtext"><b>Manual puncher for paper tape</b> (left) und <b> Tapewinder</b> (right)</div>
69                </div>
70                <p>Programming in those days was done as follows: First, the program was written
71down by hand. Each character was then translated manually using a NCR
72supplied code table to its corresponding numerical code. The paper tape was then
73punched by a secretary. Correcting errors was obviously rather cumbersome and
74time consuming.<br>
75
76The NCR 446 in the museum's collection allowed the creation of paper tapes by
77means of the built-in keyboard and the automatic paper tape punch
78unit at an additional cost of 20,000 DM (10,000 EUR).<br>
79
80The motor driven paper tape winder shown on the right could be used to wind
81the paper tapes after using them on the computer. </p>
82
83               
84               
85               
86<!-- A glimpse of the internal structure of the machine can be seen
87<a href="...">here</a>. -->
88
89
90     
91        <!-- das war B.Ulmann. Meine Übersetzung (alt):
92        <img src="/shared/photos/start/ncr_rechner.jpg" alt="NCR-Rechner" style="margin-right: 25px" />
93        <div class="bildtext">As an alternative to the desktop calculators, small installations
94           etablished in the market, used for special purpose. The NCR 446 (the picture on the left)
95           was called an "electronically invoicing machine". The installation features three paper tape
96           readers, paper tape punchers, a keyboard and an IBM spherical printhead machine as a printer.
97           Year of manufacture 1968 in Germany. It features as well a core memory and threaded ROM to
98           program freely (even scienteficially).</div>
99        -->
100
101    <h3>NIXDORF 820</h3>
102        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
103        <a href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.php" name="backlink-nixdorf" title="Zur Detailaufnahme der Nixdorf 820-Anlage"><img src="/shared/photos/start/nixdorf_820.jpg" alt="Nixdorf 820 Computer" width="670" height="270" /></a>
104                <p class="bildtext"><b>Nixdorf 820</b> with card puncher and printer</p>
105        </div>
106       
107        <p>A typical small to medium data processing system is the <b>NIXDORF 820</b> built in 1969/1970. This system is built entirely from modules, has a magnetic account reader and a <a href="storage-media.php#Threaded_ROM">threaded ROM</a> which was user modifiable. The console consists of a typewriter, the magnetic account reader and two punch card readers. In addition to this the system supports a card punching unit, a high speed matrix printer (visible on the right), two cassette tape drives and a stand alone card puncher (IBM or YUKI, see above). Clicking on the picture will yield <a class="go" href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.php">a more detailed version</a> of it.</p>
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