source: t29-www/en/computer/commercial.php @ 489

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Reparatur-Blog + Bild für IBM 1130 eingefügt.
Engl. Text für Programma 101 erneuert.

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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'kommerzielle';
3        $version = '$Id: commercial.php 489 2014-01-09 22:01:59Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'Early commercial computers';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8    <h2>Early commercial computers</h2>
9
10    <p>In contrast to computers used for scientific applications, commercial data processing systems have a different structure, since they are optimized to support large storage systems and to process lots of data, as in payroll applications and the like. Sometimes the distinction between scientific and commercial systems is not a clear one. The examples below are typical small to medium systems for commercial applications.</p>
11
12        <h3>Olivetti P 203</h3>
13    <div class="box right clear-after">
14       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/olivetti_p203.jpg" alt="Olivetti P203" width="406" height="378" />
15       <div class="bildtext">
16          <p>In 1968, P101 which has been extended with more memory, was coupled to a
17typewriter. This made it possible to print tables and the like automatically.
18It is interesting to note that the computer was only capable to print numbers -
19text data had to be typed manually on the keyboard.<br>
20 One of the most remarkable features of this 'computer' is its enclosure. It
21was designed by the Italian designer 'Mario Bellini' and got quite some awards.
22Even today the style of the machine is admired by many. <br>
23 Unfortunately, Olivetti dropped this design and later machines were just plain
24cubes in the style of the 1970s.</p>
25        </div>
26    </div>
27
28    <h3>NCR 446</h3>   
29    <div class="box center">
30        <a href="/en/devices/ncr446.php" name="ncr-backlink"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ncr-446.jpg" alt="Photography of the NCR 446" width="694" height="520" /></a>
31        </div>
32       
33    The <b>NCR 446</b> is a typical example of a 2nd generation computer
34(transistorized).
35It was developed 1966/67 in Germany at the "National Registrier Kassen GmbH"
36in Augsburg by four engineers fresh from the university. One year later their
37development was finished and the system announced.<br>
38
39The architecture is rather unique. Programs are stored on a paper tape while
40operations are controlled by means of a threaded wire ROM. The system was
41sold as a accounting machine but was not limited to that area of application.<br>
42
43The system not only contains the paper tape reader for the program control,
44but also two paper tape readers for input data, one paper tape punch, a
45keyboard, and an IBM ball-head typewriter. <br>
46
47This system was quite expensive. The basic model without a paper tape punch
48and without the additional paper tape readers for data input was sold for about
4935,000 DM (about 18,000 EUR) - about as much as three mid-class cars would
50have cost at the same time.<br>
51
52The NCR 446 was the first "small" commercial system which was able to print
53text as well as numerical values. Such a machine was used by structural
54engineers to perform the necessary calculations and directly generate a
55printout that could be used by the customer. (Competing systems like the
56Olivetti Programma 101, 203 could only print plain numbers on a small strip
57of paper.)<br>
58
59Watching the operation of the machine is a great experience. Things like the
60calculation of a square root allow the viewer to get an idea of the
61underlying algorithm. Since the program is stored on a paper tape, every step performed
62by the machine can be seen.<br>
63<br/>Clicking on the picture yields a <href="/en/devices/ncr446.php">more detailed picture</a></p>
64
65<h5 id="acc">Paper tape accessories:</h5>
66               
67                <p>Also interesting are typical paper tape accessories as shown below. It is
68next to incredible that not too far ago programs had to be prepared with
69tools like these. The figure below shows a manual paper tape punch on the left
70which can be used to punch programs on a paper tape. For the most basic version
71of the NCR 446 which lacked the attached paper tape punch, this was the only
72way to create program tapes!</p>
73               
74                <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
75        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/handlocher.jpg"  width="682" height="428" />
76        <div class="bildtext"><b>Manual puncher for paper tape</b> (left) und <b> Tapewinder</b> (right)</div>
77                </div>
78                <p>Programming in those days was done as follows: First, the program was written
79down by hand. Each character was then translated manually using a NCR
80supplied code table to its corresponding numerical code. The paper tape was then
81punched by a secretary. Correcting errors was obviously rather cumbersome and
82time consuming.<br>
83
84The NCR 446 in the museum's collection allowed the creation of paper tapes by
85means of the built-in keyboard and the automatic paper tape punch
86unit at an additional cost of 20,000 DM (10,000 EUR).<br>
87
88The motor driven paper tape winder shown on the right could be used to wind
89the paper tapes after using them on the computer. </p>
90
91               
92               
93               
94<!-- A glimpse of the internal structure of the machine can be seen
95<a href="...">here</a>. -->
96
97
98     
99        <!-- das war B.Ulmann. Meine Übersetzung (alt):
100        <img src="/shared/photos/start/ncr_rechner.jpg" alt="NCR-Rechner" style="margin-right: 25px" />
101        <div class="bildtext">As an alternative to the desktop calculators, small installations
102           etablished in the market, used for special purpose. The NCR 446 (the picture on the left)
103           was called an "electronically invoicing machine". The installation features three paper tape
104           readers, paper tape punchers, a keyboard and an IBM spherical printhead machine as a printer.
105           Year of manufacture 1968 in Germany. It features as well a core memory and threaded ROM to
106           program freely (even scienteficially).</div>
107        -->
108
109    <h3>NIXDORF 820</h3>
110        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
111        <a href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.php" name="backlink-nixdorf" title="Zur Detailaufnahme der Nixdorf 820-Anlage"><img src="/shared/photos/start/nixdorf_820.jpg" alt="Nixdorf 820 Computer" width="670" height="270" /></a>
112                <p class="bildtext"><b>Nixdorf 820</b> with card puncher and printer</p>
113        </div>
114       
115        <p>A typical small to medium data processing system is the <b>NIXDORF 820</b> built in 1969/1970. This system is built entirely from modules, has a magnetic account reader and a <a href="storage-media.php#Threaded_ROM">threaded ROM</a> which was user modifiable. The console consists of a typewriter, the magnetic account reader and two punch card readers. In addition to this the system supports a card punching unit, a high speed matrix printer (visible on the right), two cassette tape drives and a stand alone card puncher (IBM or YUKI, see above). Clicking on the picture will yield <a class="go" href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.php">a more detailed version</a> of it.</p>
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