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4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Scientifical calculators and mini computers"
5   --><!--#set var="location"     value="fruehe-computer"
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11   --><!--#set var="next_title"   value="Analog and hybrid computers"
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21<div id="content">
22    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
23       
24<h3 id="lpg21-en">Schoppe & Faeser:  LGP-21 (General Precision) </h3>
25       
26        <!-- Bild über ganze Breite (geht bei schmalen Monitoren ins Menü rein) -->
27        <!-- Implementierung dafür steht im common.css, Zeile 300ff. -->
28    <div class="box center" style="position:relative;">
29       <div style="position:absolute; top:0px;"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp-21.jpg" width="967" height="443" alt="LGP 21 Computeranlage" />
30</div>
31        <div style="height: 443px;">&nbsp;</div>
32                <p class="bildtext small">From left to right: magnetic tape drive, 1. LGP-21, Tally paper-tape-reader and punch, 2. Tally reader, two additional hard drives, 2. LGP-21, Flexowriter</p>
33               
34    </div>
35               
36                <p>This machine is particularly interesting in more than one way: 1) The hardware
37is extremely simple, 2) the machine already employs a bus system for
38interconnecting the various units. 3) The machine features a fixed disk which
39holds all registers as well as timing tracks. As the picture above shows we
40have two complete systems which simplifies troubleshooting and repair.<br>
41
42Citing from the original brochure (1964): "The LGP-21 is produced by Schoppe &
43Faeser as a licensee in Europe and is distributed by EUROCOMP GmbH."<br>
44
45The LGP-21 had been developed by Librascope, division GP1 (USA). This company
46once was one of the largest calculating machine manufacturers in the world.
47Starting in 1962 the LGP-21 was marketed in the USA by General Precision. The
48machine is a very small computer but was advertised as "The first complete
49program controlled digital computer for only $16,250 in the minimum
50configuration." This configuration consisted of the CPU and a Flexowriter only.
51This machine was the successor of the LGP-30 (1st generation, 1956, also build
52by Schoppe & Faeser in Germany as a licensed product). The LGP-21 is very rare
53- only about 100 machines were built in Germany. Even rarer is the magnetic
54tape unit of which only 5 known units were built. The machine in the museum has
55serial number 4.</p>
56
57<div class="box left clear-after">
58                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/tally-lochstreifenleser.jpg" width="603" height="241" alt="Tally Lochstreifenleser" />
59                <p class="bildtext small">The external memory of the LGP-21 are perforated papertapes, which are scanned mechanically of the Tally-tape reader. The magnetic tape drive and other external drives were added in the late 60s.</p></div>
60               
61<p>As external storage the LGP-21 employs a paper tape system using Tally
62papertape readers. The magnetic tape unit and two external disks with a
63capacity of about 8000 words each were added in the late 1960s.<br>
64
65A rotating disk serves as the machine's main memory and clock generator. It
66rotates with 1475 RPM and holds 4096 words of 32 bits each which equals 12 kB,
67a reasonable size back then. The disk contains 64 data tracks, four timing
68tracks and tracks for three registers (accumulator, instruction register and
69counter register). The mean write density is about 10 Bit/mm (about 1/200th of
70today's disk drives).<br> Here you can see a picture of the
71<a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp21-platte.jpg"><b>LGP-21 disk drive</b></a><br>
72
73The LGP-21 supports 23 different instructions - enough to program typical
74scientific applications.<br>
75
76Repairing the machine turned out to be quite a challenge. Having two machines
77of this type helps a lot.
78
79More information about this interesting and rare system will follow.</p>
80
81
82               
83</p>
84
85       
86        <h3>Mini-Computers</h3>
87       
88    <p>Today's kids think of the latest mobile devices when talking about "mini computers".
89           In contrast, in the 1960s and the early 70s, a computer was always huge (like our
90           <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC mainframe</a>), thus a 300kg computer was "mini".
91           Early computers are well worth seeing due to their enormous size and the nice
92           transparent auxillary devices.
93       <br />There is a very important computer family that finally lead to (today's)
94           personal computers: The development of the "Mini" computers from Digital Equipment
95           Corporation (DEC), series PDP-8 and PDP-12 (both 12-bit architecture). The museum
96           owns a complete production run from that devices: From the PDP-8 (also called
97           Classic-8), year of manufacture 1965 to the PDP-8a (1975, this one is less
98           important so it is located in the archive). PDP means Programmed Data Processor.
99        </p>
100        <div class="box left clear-after">
101        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/flip-chip-module.jpg" width="400" height="173" alt="Flip-Chip-Module" />
102                <p>The manuals of these computers are very detailed, with full circuit
103                   documentation. There never have been any other computer with such an
104                   elaborate documentation. For restoration purposes these manuals are
105                   indispensable. Even in those days, other manufacturers kept their
106                   blueprints in secret for fear of unauthorized re-use (e.g. HP).
107                 
108                </p>
109        </div>
110       
111        <p>For further reading see the story about <a class="go" name="backlink-dec"
112        href="/en/devices/dec-history.shtm">Rise and Fall of DIGITAL (Equipment Corporation)</a>.</p>
113
114    <!--alter Text: The legendary Classic PDP 8 from the company DEC (year of manufacture 1965) can be admired among others. Furthermore you can see the PDP 8L or <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp_8I.shtm">PDP 8I</a> (year of manufacture 1967, a lot of periphery) and the laboratory computer <a class="go" href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm">LAB8e</a> (1971).
115    Because of constantly growing claims for storage capacity, backing storage (19-zoll drawers for 4kB with a weight of 20kg) was offered. The PDP 8I could not administrate more than 32kB.
116    <br />THe PDP 8L, a trimmed-down version of the PDP 8I, cannot hold more than 8 kB.</p> -->
117
118    <h3>Classic PDP-8</h3>
119        <div class="box left clear-after">
120                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8.jpg" width="400" height="474" alt="PDP 8 Classic" />
121                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8 Bedienungspannel" />
122                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8-fluegel.jpg" width="400" height="345" alt="PDP-8 Flügel" />
123       
124       
125                <p>PDP computers were especially used by scientists. By using self-made
126                   (CPU) interface boards, already existing (experimental) equipment could easily
127                   migrated to the new hardware. DEC even offered prefabricated boards to
128                   encourage own extension development.
129                   The figure above shows a typical second generation module (1965) without ICs
130                   from the classic PDP-8 on the left. In the middle is a smaller third generation
131                   module with ICs (from 1967) which was used in the PDP-8i, PDP-8L and PDP-12.
132                   On the right is an empty module just suitable for being equipped by the
133                   user for interfaces to own periphery.<br>
134
135       
136         One of the museum highlights: The complete PDP-8 system with processor,
137         a big tape deck TU-580 (originally belonged to the PDP-5, manufactured in 1963),
138         punch card reader/puncher PC-01, hard-disc DF-32 with immovable heads
139         and a teletype as printer. The Classic PDP-8 is considered the world's first mass-produced
140         "minicomputer". Due it's use of ICs, unlike its predecessors, it is considered
141                 a second-generation computer.
142        </p>
143                 
144                <p>This computer features various different logic and register modules. All logic
145                is only built with NAND and NOR gatters. Registers are constructed with flip-flop
146                circuits. The extensive wiring of the modules (see picture) is called
147                <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap">Wire wrapping</a>. This kind of
148                connections were used in all bigger computers until the 1980s, since it is an
149                easy way to connect two points which are not mounted on the same board or on the
150                same level. In the early days this wiring was manually performed and later executed
151                by machines. Even today there are still some wire-wrap-connections in testing
152                environments.
153                <br>
154                The picture shows the uncovered computer with opened right wing where you can easily
155                see the wire-wrap connections.</p>
156       
157                <p class="small">Top: Complete PDP-8 system, <br/> center: console of the computer <br/> below: open computer, the right wing is extended. Here you can see the wire-wrap connections.<br><br>
158                The processor and the tape reader are on loan from the <a href="http://www.fitg.de"> "FITG"</a>, Frankfurt (Germany)</small>
159               
160                </div>
161         <!-- The <b>Classic PDP 8</b> from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation, Massachusetts):
162         He is considered to be the world's first mass-produced "minicomputer" (1965). "Mini" is relative: Only too very
163         strong men can lift the computer. It is better to have four people to carry it!.
164         Without ICs or their ancestors the device is counted among the seccond-generation calculators.
165         <br/>You can also get a view from the "Flip-Chip"-card from the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp-8-left-flank.shtm">left flank</a>
166         (<u>flank</u>). The core memory is set above (storage capacity 4kB).-->
167   
168   
169 
170  <h3>PDP-8I</h3>
171    <div class="box left">
172        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8i.jpg" alt="DEC PDP-8I" width="400" height="666" />
173        </div>
174        <div style="margin-left:400px; min-width: 450px;">
175                <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
176                        <img style="float:none" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8i-pannel.jpg" width="400" height="292" alt="PDP 8i operator panel" />
177                        <p class="bildtext small">Left: The PDP-8i system with two-DECtapes TU 55, hight-speed paper tape reader/punch
178                                PC 04, 563 CALCOM plotter (top) and a TELETYPE (not shown). Above: the computer console</p>
179                </div>
180        </div>
181     
182          <p>In 1967 the first series 74xx TTL ICs (transistor-transistor logic) came on the market.
183             DEC was at the bleeding edge, releasing the 8i ("with <b>i</b>ntegrated circuits"). No one
184                 knew about the stability of the new ICs (later bugs). Therefore UNIVAC used the well established
185                 DTL technology even two years after. Fortunately, the TTL ICs proved to be as stable as the DTL
186                 series. Since the integration degree was much higher, less space has been needed for computers.
187                 <br>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was very expensive. The CPU on alone
188                 (in the picture: Left case, middle) cost US$ 27,000 without peripherals at that time.
189         <br>The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While computing a "large" problem, it was possible to swap
190         programs or data to files on magnetic tape and read in afterward be reread. DEC developed
191         an intelligent operating system (OS/8) which worked very efficiently with such little memory.
192         It is very interesting to watch this computer working.</p>
193         <p>If you have not been in the presence of this computer, you should know that it is quite large.
194         With the plotter, it stands at a height of almost 7' (2m) and weighting at more than 600 lbs (300kg).</p>
195         <p>The peripherals consist of two TU-55 (tape drives), a PC-04 (high speed paper tape reader),
196         Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not pictured).
197        </p>
198
199                 
200        <h3 id="pdp8L">PDP-8L</h3>
201        <div class="box desc-left borderless">
202                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8L.jpg" width="400" height="360" alt="DEC PDP-8L" />
203                <p class="small">PDP-8L (build in 1968) with HSR Paper Tape Reader</p>
204        </div>
205        <div class="box clear-after">
206                <p>Many DEC customers did not need the high memory capacity or installable options.
207                Therefore DEC developed the stripped-down computer PDP 8L (<b>L</b>ow-cost) with
208                only a few pre-wired installed options in the lower price range.
209                The core memory had only 4kB capacity, it was extendable to 8kB with an external cabinet.
210                <br>Our PDP-8L has many extensions: HSR (High Speed) paper tape reader, TC01 Tape Control
211                with two drives TU55 and additional memory.
212                <br>DEC invented the interpreted programming language <b>FOCAL</b> (Formulating Online
213                Calculations in Algebraic Language), which allowed the user an interactive
214                programming environment (like a Unix shell). This language is similar to BASIC, but
215                slightly simpler. FOCAL required no operating system and ran smoothly with 4kB core
216                memory and lacking mass storage.
217        </div>
218 
219
220 <h3 id="pdp12">PDP-12, LAB-12</h3>
221 <div class="box left">
222      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12.jpg" width="400" height="485" alt="DEC LAB-12" />
223 </div>
224 <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
225          <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-konsole.jpg" width="400" height="256" alt="LAB-12 Bedienungspannel" />
226 </div>
227 
228                        <p>The PDP-12 was released in 1969. Just 755 units were sold worldwide. It was the last series that
229                        could operate in LINC-Mode (it could be switched to either LINC-8
230                        or PDP-8). This is a laboratory computer, equipped with AD and DA
231                        converter as standard. Such computers were usually kept up to date
232                        with hardware updates. The memory of this device was gradually
233                        increased from 8kB up to 32kB (DW 08E storage extension).
234                        <br>Besides the tape drives, the computer was also equipped with
235                        an 8-inch floppy drive. Afterwards they were removed again in
236                        favor of two removable disk drives. Finally they even tied the
237                        device to 10BASE-T ethernet, using a selfmade controller with an
238                        handwritten TCP/IP stack on a selfmade operating system.
239                        Thus this device can demonstrate the era from paper tapes up to
240                        today's storage standard.<br>
241                        Check out the console in a large scale:
242<a class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,dunkel.jpg">PDP-12 console (dark picture)</a> 
243or: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,hell.jpg">PDP-12 console (ligh picture)</a>
244                        </p>
245               
246        <div class="desc-right borderless">
247      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-innen.jpg" width="297" height="676" alt="DEC LAB-12-Flip-Chips" />
248          <p class="small">The picture on the left shows the PDP-12 inner life with all 462 Flip-Chip-Boards.</p>
249        </div>
250
251        <p>By having all the following options, our computer was very comfortable
252        (the number in parentheses indicates the number of neccessary boards):</p>
253
254        <dl>
255                <dt>AD12 [A-D-Control] (12 modules):
256                <dd>The AD12 includes 16 channels of input, 10bit output resolution and features
257                    up to 60kHz signals at 30dB down.
258               
259                <dt>DM12 [Data Break Multiplexer for KF12-B] (6 modules):
260                <dd>The DM12 provides the capability of operating up to three data break devices.
261                    The Data Break facility allows an I/O device to transfer information directly
262                        with the PDP-12 core memory on a cycle-stealing basis. This is particulary
263                        well suited for high-speed devices which transfer large amounts of information
264                        in block form. Peripheral I/O equipment  could reach a maximum transfer rate
265                        of 6,5 Mbit/sec.
266               
267                <dt>DP12A [TTY-Dataphone] (4 modules):
268                <dd>The DP12 options permit interfacing additional Teletypes and Modems. They are
269                    capable of accepting data asynchronously up to 100,000 baud. The units are
270                        designed for US-ASCII and meet the EIA-standard (RS232) requirements.
271               
272                <dt>DR12 [Relays and Control] (1 module):
273                <dd>The relay buffer is a six-bit register connected to six relays that are mounted
274                    on the data terminal panel. They can be used for controlling experiments or
275                        external equipment not otherwise directly interfaced with the PDP-12 Computer.
276                        The states of the relays can be examinede at any time via the register.
277               
278                <dt>KE12 [Extended Arithmetik Element] (14 modules):
279                <dd>The EAE enables the CP (the DEC operating system) to perform arithmetic
280                    operations at higher speed. The ALU is extended by asynchronous logic such as a
281                        12-bit Multiplier Quotient Register and a 5-bit Step Counter.  These components
282                        are used by auxillary CPU instructions (opcodes).
283                       
284                <dt>KF12 [Multi Level] (54 modules):
285                <dd>The Multi-Level Automatic Priority Interrupt is designed to reduce the CPU
286                    overhead during the servicing of program interrupts. Up to 15 levels of interrupts
287                        can be accomodated with each level having an unique vector address. The interrupts
288                        can be accepted from other options (CPU extensions) or from up to six external
289                        devices. Storing of priority and vectoring of interrupt service routines is
290                        performed with a Stack.
291                       
292                <dt>KT12 [Time-Sharing Option] (2 modules):
293                <dd>This module provides the additional logic circuits required for the PDP12 Time
294                    Sharing System. Having satisfied the minimum equipment, it perimts up to 16 users
295                        to operate their individual programs in an apperantly simultaneous manner. The
296                        system is controlled by a group of subprograms called "TSS/12 Monitor".
297                       
298                <dt>KW12-A [Real Time Clock] (19 modules):
299                <dd>The RTC can be used to generate Program Interrupts over a range of intervals of
300                    2.5us to 40.96s; detect external and internal events in order to count them,
301                        measure them against a time base, measure the interval between them, use them as
302                        time base standard or control sample times of A/D conversions. In our system
303                        this module was used to connect the german longwave time signal radio station
304                        DCF77 in order to recieve the atomic clock time from the German master clocks
305                        in Frankfurt.
306        </dl>
307       
308        <p>The computer is equipped with further cabinets which allow much more peripherals:</p>
309       
310        <div class="desc-right no-copyright borderless">
311       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12anwendung.jpg" width="400" height="366" alt="Typical PDP-12 in scientific environment" />
312           <p class="bildtext small">Typical picture in the 1970s: PDP-12 in the scientific domain. [Source: "digital products and applications, 1971"]</p>
313        </div>
314       
315        <dl>
316                <dt>AA50P [12 Bit DAC Controller]
317                <dd>Cabinet to upgrade the number of digital-analog converters (half filled in our setup)
318               
319                <dt>BA12 [Peripharal Expander]
320                <dd>Cabinet for peripheral extension, e.g. paper tape reader/puncher, PC05, card
321                    readers, etc.
322               
323                <dt>DW08A [I/O Bus Converter]
324                <dd>Cabinet to connect "negative bus system" units. The "negative logic level" was used
325                    at the time of germanium transistors (PNP), for example the DF32 disk drive with
326                        fixed heads.
327
328                <dt>DW08E [I/O Bus Converter]
329                <dd>This plug-in for the smaller PDP-8e converts the PDP-8, -8i and -12 bus to the
330                    OMNIBUS system from the PDP-8e. Thus all 8e interfaces could be connected, e.g. the
331                        RK8E interface (Digitl RK05) or Plessey PM DD/8 disk drives.
332               
333                <dt>BM812 [Memory Expansion Box]
334                <dd>Memory expansion box that is capable of expending either a PDP8i or PDP12
335                    from 8kB to 32kB with MM8e-stacks (like in the PDP-8e).
336        </dl>
337       
338        <div class="desc-left auto-bildbreite borderless" style="margin-bottom: 0;">
339      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/talk-to-me.jpg" width="163" height="209" alt="Demo-12 Demoprogramm" />
340          <p class="bildtext small">So logs the PDP-12-demo program</p>
341        </div>
342       
343        <p>This system is fully developed. This was a common approach at that time: At first the
344           computer was purchased in the basic version which was barely affordable. Afterwards
345           more options were installed step-by-step. That way the enormous acquisition costs
346           were distributed over several years and the computer was always up to date.<br>
347           We have very good programs [Demo-12 running on DIAL], which shows with extreme illustrative the performance of the computer. This includes an on-screen analog clock with real-time display and the game
348"SPACE WAR". Some of will be soon available on our special page [in working].
349    </p>
350        <div class="cols" style="clear:left;">
351        <div class="leftcol">
352        <p class="small">(Google-translation!):We have a PDP-12 price list from the year 1973, a period in which the PDP-12 was already an outdated model. Our fully-equipped computer was a PDP-12 LDP (Laboratory Data Processor), here specifically a "clinical lab12", sold at a price of DM 206.700. Most of the options listed above were built in. (In 1973 3,50DM corresponds to 1$).<br>
353        This computer was equipped with 4kB Memory Core. So one needs in adition a "Memory Extension Control" for 16.600 DM and a 4kB Memory Module for 25.100 DM. The price for the unimposing Peripheral Expander BA12 was 5.400 DM (equivalent to a midsize car) and "High-Speed Paper Tape Reader/Punch" incredible 16.200 DM.</div>
354        <div class="rightcol">
355        <p class="small">
356
357        A Disk Cartridge Drive RK05 where sold for DM 21.200, where one needs in addition the "Positive I/O Bus to Omnibus Converter" DW8E (6750 DM). Similarly is the Converter DW08A and the Cabinet AA50 for additional D/A Controller. The 3 plugged D/A modules were calculated with 1.680 DM per unit.
358        The memory expansion to 32K does not appear on the list, but the price for this option was about 50.000 DM including the controller.<br>
359
360        In the sum it is a staggering number of 387.690 DM, which is today corresponding about 500,000 € or 600.000 $!</p>
361</small>
362</div>
363</div>
364<div class="clear">
365</div>
366
367         <h3 id="8e">Lab-8e, PDP-8e</h3>
368        <div class="box left">
369                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/lab8e.jpg" width="400" height="461" alt="DEC LAB-8e" />
370        </div>
371        <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
372                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8e,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8e operator panel" />
373        </div>
374    <div class="bildtext">
375            <p>The successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer came with an
376             internal bus system, so you could easily attach any peripherals using interface cards. This
377             feature made the "mini"-computer all-purpose. This computer type was offered with diverse
378             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as a laboratory computer for analogue
379             devices (shown in the picture). The peripherals are:</p>
380            <ul>
381                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
382                <li>PC 04 (High speed paper tape reader/puncher)</li>
383                <li>3 x TU 56 (double tape drive)</li>
384                <li>A/D- and D/A-converter</li>
385            </ul>
386        </div>
387    <div class="box left clear-after">
388                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8e-module.jpg" alt="8e-Module" width="400" height="175"/>
389                <p>The picture on the left shows a board for own peripheral interfaces. In this unit,
390                   bus amplifiers, etc. are already mounted. You could install your own ICs in front of
391                   them and connect them with Wire-Wrap or soldered wires.
392                   On the right is a typical module with a lot of ICs. Both modules are only partially
393                   visible.
394                </p>
395    </div>
396       
397       
398 <h3 id="nova-en">Data General: NOVA 2</h3>
399   
400   <div class="box left">
401      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova2.jpg" width="400" height="561" alt="Data General: NOVA 2" />
402<p>     Edson de Castro was responsible for product management at DEC and was intent
403on developing a 16-bit computer with a processor that would fit on a single
404printed circuit board. But Ken Olson, the founder of DEC, wasn't
405supportive. So de Castro left DEC in 1968 together with three other
406hardware engineers to found his own company in a vacant barber's shop:
407<b>Data General Corporation </b>(Massachusetts, USA).<br>
408
409Already in 1969 the first 16-bit computer in the <b>"NOVA" </b>series was ready
410for the market. Thanks to the simpler production method (no wire wrapping,
411only two boards + memory boards etc.) the basic version was quite inexpensive
412at $4000. However, this basic model alone wasn't really that useful, and
413after extending the computer the total price was substantially higher.
414The Nova computer was advertised as "the best small computer in the world".
415At this time, DEC was still building the PDP-8/I and the PDP-12, which
416required lots of very small flip-chip-modules. <br>
417
418The successor model (available in 1973), the<b> NOVA 2</b>, was simplified even
419further, and the increased chip density made it possible to have the whole
420processor together with the control logic for slow peripheral devices
421(teletype, paper tape puncher and reader) one single board. Our Nova is a
422NOVA 2/10 model with slots for 10 boards, and therefore enough space for
423quite a few device controllers and memory extensions.<br>
424
425
426From today's perspective, the rather huge boards (15x15 inch,
427nicknamed "circuit graveyards in baking tray size") do have disadvantages:
428any kind of repair is very difficult, because it is not possible to pin down
429a malfunction by exchanging small boards.<br>
430
431The NOVA shown in the picture is from a university. It is equipped with
432two harddisk drives, one twin floppy drive (8" disks!), one teletype,
433one high-speed paper tape punch reader and one punch card reader (not in
434the picture). Later on a terminal was added, which extended the computer
435to a comfortably usable system.</p>
436
437The details are better visible in a larger photo: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova-detail.jpg">NOVA 2 with terminal</a><br>
438
439          <p class="bildtext small">
440Hardware configuration, from top to bottom:<br>
441<dl>
442
443<dd>Paper tape punch reader (mostly used for testing programs included with
444  every delivered system)
445<dd>Twin disk drive for 8-inch floppy disks, Model 6032
446<dd>CPU with core memory, 32 KB, access time 0.8 us
447<dd>Two hard-disk drives with removable cartridges, Series 30. Capacity
448  1.200.000 16-bit words, or 2.4 MB.
449<dd>Disk Cartridge System 4047, necessary to connect the second disk
450<dd>Terminal "DASHER 1", Model 6052 by Data General, on the right hand side
451</dl></small>     
452 </div>
453 
454 
455    <h3>WANG 2200 with bulky peripheral hardware</h3>
456    <p>Next, the first system that looks like today's computer is presented: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. This computer, with so many peripheral devices, is probably unique in Germany. The peripherals: paper tape reader, punch card reader,  triple 8-inch disc drive, hard disc system with 38cm diameter disks (the device weights 100kg and cost 24000 DM, but only holdy 5MB), special BASIC-language keyboard, etc.</p>
457    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP
458    computers had only a single-line LED display until 1975.</p>
459
460    <div class="box center">
461       <a href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm" name="backlink-wang2200"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/wang2200.jpg" width="592" height="402" alt="Wang 2200" /></a>
462    </div>
463
464    <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: the PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as today's PCs, but had 8kB and had decent applications. Many more home computers followed, the market got out of hand and therewith this collection of computers ends.</p>
465     
466     <p>See further details at <a class="go" href="/en/details2.shtm" title="Details 2">the tabular overview of
467     mid range data processing equipment and proffessional early computers</a>.</p>
468</div>
469
470
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