source: t29-www/en/computer/early-computers.shtm @ 56

Last change on this file since 56 was 56, checked in by sven, 11 years ago

VERSION 5.8.5
=============

Synchronisation der englischen Uebersetzung. Es wurden nur relevante Dinge
uebersetzt -- Umformulierungen mit aehnlichen Inhalten als Ergebnis wurden
ignoriert, da im englischen ja doch z.T. der Inhalt erheblich vom Deutschen
abweicht.

-- Sven @ workstation

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4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Scientifical calculators and mini computers"
5   --><!--#set var="location"     value="fruehe-computer"
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9   --><!--#set var="prev_title"   value="Early commercial computers"
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13
14    <!--#include virtual="/en/inc/head.inc.shtm" -->
15    <meta name="keywords" lang="en" content="technikum29, early computers, DEC PDP, WANG 2200" />
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17    <meta name="DC.Subject" content="<!--#echo var="title" -->" />
18    <meta name="t29.SVN" content="$Id: early-computers.shtm 56 2008-11-28 23:33:59Z sven $" />
19    <meta name="t29.germanoriginal" content="18.07.2007/v5.7FINAL" />
20    <meta name="t29.thistranslation" content="22.08.2008/v5.8FINAL" />
21    <meta name="t29.comments" content="Link to new DEC-HISTORY page" />
22    <!--changleog: 27.04.2006/v5.5.1 auf Basis 2005/v5.5.1 -->
23    <!--changelog: 21.08.2007/v5.7.5 auf Bais 18.07.2007/v5.7FINAL -->
24        <!--changelog: 28.07.2008/v5.8.0 auf Basis 18.07.2007/v5.7FINAL:  details 2 paragraph formulierung -->
25</head>
26<body>
27<!--#echo encoding="none" var="heading" -->
28<div id="content">
29    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
30
31    <p>Today's kids think of the latest mobile devices when talking about "mini computers". In contrast, in the 1960s and the early 70s, a computer was always huge (like our <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC mainframe</a>), thus a 300kg computer was "mini". Early computers are well worth seeing due to their enormous size and the nice transparent auxillary devices.
32    <br />There is a very important computer family that finally lead to today's (personal) computers: The development of the "Mini" computers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), series PDP&nbsp;8. The museum owns a complete production run from that devices: From the PDP&nbsp;8 (also called Classic&nbsp;8), year of manufacture 1965 to the PDP&nbsp;8a (1975, this one is less important so it is located in the archive).
33         <br/>For further reading see the story about <a class="go" name="backlink-dec" href="/en/devices/dec-history.shtm">Rise and Fall of DIGITAL (Equipment Corporation)</a>.
34        </p>
35   
36    <!--alter Text: The legendary Classic PDP 8 from the company DEC (year of manufacture 1965) can be admired among others. Furthermore you can see the PDP 8L or <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp_8I.shtm">PDP 8I</a> (year of manufacture 1967, a lot of periphery) and the laboratory computer <a class="go" href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm">LAB8e</a> (1971).
37    Because of constantly growing claims for storage capacity, backing storage (19-zoll drawers for 4kB with a weight of 20kg) was offered. The PDP 8I could not administrate more than 32kB.
38    <br />THe PDP 8L, a trimmed-down version of the PDP 8I, cannot hold more than 8 kB.</p> -->
39
40    <div class="box center">
41       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp_8.jpg" width="504" height="521" alt="PDP 8 Classic" />
42       <p class="bildtext">
43         One of the museal highlights: The complete PDP 8 system with processor,
44         big tape deck TU 580 (originally belongs to the PDP 5, year of manufacture
45         1963), punch card reader/puncher PC 01, hard disc DF 32 with immovable heads
46         and a teletype as printer. The Classic-8 is called the world's first mass-produced
47         "minicomputer". Without ICs or their ancestor it is a seccond-generation apparature.
48         <br />The CPU and paper tape reader are loans from the <a href="http://www.fitg.de/fitg_english/">FITG (Association for the promition of industrial and technological history)</a>.
49
50         <!-- The <b>Classic PDP 8</b> from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation, Massachusetts):
51         He is considered to be the world's first mass-produced "minicomputer" (1965). "Mini" is relative: Only too very
52         strong men can lift the computer. It is better to have four people to carry it!.
53         Without ICs or their ancestors the device is counted among the seccond-generation calculators.
54         <br/>You can also get a view from the "Flip-Chip"-card from the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp-8-left-flank.shtm">left flank</a>
55         (<u>flank</u>). The core memory is set above (storage capacity 4kB).-->
56       </p>
57    </div>
58
59    <div class="box left">
60        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp_8i.jpg" alt="DEC PDP 8I" width="317" height="441" />
61        <div class="bildtext">
62            <h3>PDP 8I</h3>
63            <p>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was not cheap. The CPU on
64             its own (in the middle of the picture) without periphery costed 27000$ at that time.<br/>
65             The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While calculating a "bigger" problem, possibly some files
66             (programs, data) had to be swapped on a (magnetic) tape and read in afterwards. DEC developed
67             a very intelligent operating system (OS/8) which could work very efficiently with such few memory.
68             It is very interesting to watch this computer working.</p>
69            <p>If you have not yet seen such a computer, you should know that it is more than 2m high (with
70             plotter) and has a weight of more than 300 kg.</p>
71            <p>The periphery constists of 2 x TU 55 (tape drives), PC 04 (high speed paper tape reader),
72             Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not in the picture).</p>
73        </div>
74        <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
75    </div>
76
77    <div class="box right">
78        <a href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm" name="lab8e"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/lab_8e.jpg" width="317" height="486" alt="LAB 8e" class="nomargin-bottom" /></a>
79        <!-- other picture -->
80        <div  class="bildtext">
81            <h3>Lab 8e</h3>
82            <p>Successor of the PDP8i was the PDP8e (1970). This computer had already an
83             internal bus system. So you could easily attach any periphery with interface cards. This
84             feature made the "Mini"computer all-purpose. This Computer type was offered with diverse
85             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as laboratory computer for analogue
86             devices (shown in the picture). The periphery is:</p>
87            <ul>
88                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
89                <li>PC 04 (High speed paper tape reader/puncher)</li>
90                <li>2 x TU 56 (double tape drive)</li>
91                <li>RK 05 (removable disk drive)</li>
92                <li>A/D- and D/A-converter</li>
93            </ul>
94        </div>
95        <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
96    </div>
97
98
99    <p>Furthermore the first system that looks like a today's computer is connected: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. The computer with so much peripheral devices is propably unique in Germany. The periphery: paper tape reader, reader for stacked cards, 8-inch triple disc drive, disc system with 38cm big disks (the device has a weight of 100kg and costed 24.000,- DM whereas it only saved 5MB), special basic-keyboard, etc.</p>
100    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP built his
101    computers only with a single LED display until 1975.</p>
102
103    <div class="box center">
104       <a href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm" name="backlink-wang2200"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/wang2200_komplettanlage.jpg" width="474" height="325" alt="Wang 2200" /></a>
105    </div>
106
107    <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as a today's PC but saved 8kB and had decent applications. Many more Homepcomputer followed, the market got out of hand and therewith the collection of computers ends.</p>
108     
109     <p>See further details at <a class="go" href="/en/details2.shtm" title="Details 2">the tabular overview of
110     mid range data processing equipment and proffessional early computers</a>.</p>
111</div>
112
113
114<!-- end of content -->
115<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/menu.inc.shtm" -->
116</body>
117</html>
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