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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'elektro-mechanik';
3        $version = '$Id: electro-mechanical.php 1417 2018-01-01 16:56:02Z heribert $';
4        $title = '(Electro-) mechanical calculators';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8
9<header class="teaser seitenstart">
10        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/header-mechanik.jpg" width="940"  height="250">
11        <h2>Mechanical computing</h2>
12</header>
13
14
15
16    <h2>Mechanical Adding Machines</h2>
17
18        <div class="box left clear-after">
19        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/efzet.jpg" width="447" height="433" alt="EFZET Slide Rod Calculator" />
20                <p class="bildtext">
21                        For the sake of completeness, we mention the predecessors of the electro-mechanical calculators: pure
22                        mechanical "pocket calculators" of the early days. The picture on the left shows a small slide rod calculator
23                        from "Produx". This handy device <i>Efzet</i> was intended
24        </p>
25        <blockquote>for the buisenessman, industrial, craftsman, engineer, student and even the housewife</blockquote>
26                <p>
27                like the <a href="/en/devices/efzet.php" class="en">instruction sheet</a> (german only) tells.
28                        This device does not seem to be very useful.
29                </p>
30        </div>
31
32    <h2>(Electro-) mechanical calculators</h2>
33   
34
35<div class="box left clear-after">
36        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/burroughs.jpg" width="447" height="606" alt="Borroughs Mod.2" />
37        <p class="bildtext">
38
39   <p>
40            The first electronically calculating calculators were gigantic mainframes
41        in the 1940/50s. Until then, calculators worked mechanically.
42        When the handwheel was replaced by an electric engine, the era of mechanical
43            calculators began.
44        </p>
45    <p>
46            <!--The first printing mechanical calculator (1905) is an unicum with an huge exterior engine!-->
47               
48                From the first fully automatic machines (1927) until calculators with
49                accumulating memory (1960s), mechanical calculators computed the result
50                indepently after user input.
51                Curta I, The world's first "pocket calculator", has 1/3 from the volume of a
52        Coca Cola-pin and is consequently the smallest four-species machine ever built.
53                Looking at mechanical calculators, one quickly recognize the enormous
54                importance of the positional notation.</p>
55               
56        <p>
57           <b>Burroughs Mod. 2.</b>
58           The first printing calculating machine was invented in the USA (about 1905)
59                   and was selled worldwide. It features a complete keyboard for 17 digits, a
60                   printing unit and a long carriage for the sheet paper. The device could be
61                   used as a simple electronic accounting machine. At that time the engines
62                   could already be built just compact enough for such a device. Anyway, the
63                   huge engine (for today's circumstances) had to be placed below the device
64                   (on the right hand side in the picture). The sack below the engine is
65                   intended for collecting the leakage oil.
66        </p>
67    </div>
68
69    <div class="box right clear-after">
70        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/madas1.jpg" width="600" height="373" alt="Madas Rechenmaschiene" />
71        <p class="bildtext"><b>MADAS</b>, an electromechanical calculator from 1927
72        made by the calculating machine factury "Egli AG" in Zurich.
73                Since multiplying and dividing needs some time, the inventors installed a small
74                bell (at the upper left) that rings after the calculation has finished.</p>
75    </div>
76
77    <div class="box left clear-after">
78        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/rheinmetall.jpg" width="600" height="499" alt="Rheinmetall Superautomat" />
79        <p class="bildtext">In 1932, <b>Rheinmetall</b> extended an adding machine with
80                  a surface mounting, thus creating a 4-species calculating machine.
81          The comfortable usability seems to be the reason why they called it "Superautomat".
82                  Calculating is the only ability of this colossus.
83                </p>
84    </div>
85       
86        <div class="box right clear-after">
87        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/curta.jpg" width="500" height="489" alt="Curta I and Curta II" />
88            <p class="bildtext">
89                    <b>Curta I and Curta II</b>
90                        <br>These outstanding small pocket calculators were produced almost
91                        unmodified from 1948 to ca. 1971. This is unbelievable for today's
92                        technology products. The Curta could perform all basic arithmetic
93                        operations.
94                        Packing all the complex mechanics into such a small volume was an enormous
95                        challenge. For comparision of the sizes, we put a matchbox from the same
96                        era on the picture.
97                        <br>The Internet is full of literature about the Curta, e.g. the
98                        <a href="http://www.vcalc.net/cu-bckup.htm">story about inventor Curt
99                        Herzstark</a>.
100                </p>
101    </div>
102
103        <div class="box right clear-after">
104        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/diehl-vsr18.jpg" width="500" height="375" alt="DIEHL VSR-18" />
105        <p class="bildtext"><b>DIEHL VSR-18</b>, one of many mechanical calculators
106        built between 1955 and 1965.
107        <br/>The engineers were hardly pressed to design better and better machines, until
108        the limit of feasibility. So the operating instructions say: "This DIEHL-device VSR
109        performs outstanding work". That is really true: For example, one were able to
110        cache results and to transfer back them anytime you want to. With this feature
111        daily calculations like 25 + 12 x 7 - 17 x 6 could be solved without notating
112        anything. However, this luxury still had a drawback: Maloperation could damage the
113                whole device.</p>
114    </div>
115       
116       
117        <div id="logos" class="box right clear-after">
118         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/olivetti-logos27-2.jpg" width="500" height="362" alt="Oivetti Logos 27-2" />
119        <p class="bildtext"><b>Olivetti Logos 27-2</b>,
120                a mechanical monstrosity as a last stand against the
121                then modern electronic calculators. The first version hit the market in 1965, followed by this big second modell in 1967 which weighs in excess of 27 kg! This calculator features three memory cells, automatic carry, floating point and several additional features.<br>
122               
123                Olivetti proudly presented this printing calculator as a workhorse for
124scientific applications, "slightly" exaggerating its features and
125versatility. <br>
126As typical applications, the calculation of square and cubic roots were
127demonstrated as well as the solution of systems of linear equations,
128determinants, polynomials, series expansion etc. Of course, these tasks could
129not be performed by just pressing a single key. Instead, simple algorithms
130were necessary, written down as sequences of basic operations which often
131required the user to enter approximate values. The calculation of the cubic
132root of 2993582.625 for example required 25 key strokes and three inputs of
133values. So much for workhorse for scientific applications - without any means
134of storing a program working with this machine was mostly a tedious task.
135
136        </div>
137                <div class="box left clear-after">
138                <a href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/logos-innen-links.jpg">
139                                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/logos-innen-links.jpg" width="196" height="147"/>
140                        </a>
141                <a href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/logos-innen-rechts.jpg">
142                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/logos-innen-rechts.jpg" width="196" height="147"/>
143                </a>
144                It looks as if the brilliant designers of mechanical calculators wanted to created a last fulminant hurrah just to show what could be done with mechanical systems although the time was ripe for electronic calculators. It should be noted that Olivetti already had introduced the rather sophisticated electronic calculator <a class="go" href="/en/computer/programmable.php#101"><b>PROGRAMMA 101</b></a> back in 1966.
145
146Keeping such a mechanical marvel alive is a formidable task. Even using the
147wrong oil or grease for lubrication can lead to stuck mechanisms resulting in
148a completely unusable machine in a short time. Unfortunately, our machine has
149suffered so badly that it is beyond repair.
150
151By clicking on the small pictures you will get some impressions of this
152mechanical marvel.</p>
153       
154       
155         <div class="box left clear-after">
156        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/kids-rechnen-mechanisch.jpg" width="448" height="336" alt="Kid´s beim Exp.-Workshop" />
157        <p class="bildtext">Hands-on-workshop: It is a challenge for kids and young adults to perform a
158division operation with mechanical devices.</p>
159                </div>
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