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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
2     "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
3<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="de">
4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Punch card computing"
5   --><!--#set var="location"     value="lochkarten"
6   --><!--#set var="part"         value="computer"
7   --><!--#set var="url_de"       value="rechnertechnik/lochkarten-edv.shtm"
8   --><!--#set var="prev"         value="ic-technology.shtm"
9   --><!--#set var="prev_title"   value="Programmable third-generation calculators with early IC-technology"
10   --><!--#set var="next"         value="tabulating-machine.shtm"
11   --><!--#set var="next_title"   value="BULL Tabulating machine"
12 --><title>technikum29 - <!--#echo var="title" --></title>
13
14    <!--#include virtual="/en/inc/head.inc.shtm" -->
15    <meta name="t29.SVN" content="$Id: punchcard.shtm 253 2012-05-22 00:13:00Z heribert $" />
16</head>
17<body>
18<!--#echo encoding="none" var="heading" -->
19<div id="content">
20    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
21
22    <p>Punch cards are used since the beginnings of the 20th century
23       as storage media. They are handy, can be labeled automatically or by
24       hand, and can be sorted quickly. Therefore they were used until
25       the late 1980s. Indeed they were mainly used in the 1960s, when
26       EDP conquered the world. Today's folk is astonished at the size,
27       the clearness and functionality of these machines. At technikum29
28       most of these archaic devices still work.</p>
29
30        <h3>Card puncher devices</h3>
31    <div class="box left clear-after">
32        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lochkartenstanzer.jpg"
33                 alt="Various card punchers" width="330" height="368"
34                 class="nomargin-bottom" />
35        <div class="bildtext">
36           <p>For punching cards only occasionally, the small bottom device
37               was quite sufficient, e.g. for small companies. The device in
38               the middle of the picture is a puncher from BULL and the topmost
39               device is a so-called "magnetic puncher" that is equipped with
40               solenoids that punch the holes. For even higher amounts of
41               punching requirements, there were quite more expensive
42               "motor-driven punchers".
43            </p>
44    </div>
45    </div>
46
47    <p>A typical machinery consists of a card puncher which punches the
48       information and data on the cards, a card collator which sorts
49       the cards from different stacks (for instance <i>adresses</i>
50       and <i>bills</i>), a sorter which sorts with specified loads
51       and possibly a punch card interpreter that writes the punched
52       information on a prescribed position on the punch card.</p>
53
54    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
55        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_029-juki.jpg" alt="IBM 029 und Juki" width="580" height="340" />
56        <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM 029 and JUKI card puncher.</b></p>
57        </div>
58       
59        <p> On the left hand in the picture there is the legendary
60            IBM 029 (build since 1964), on the right hand the JUKI puncher
61            (made in Japan). The JUKI puncher is not accidentally looking
62            like the IBM: In 1971 IBM brought the puncher 129 on the market
63            which buffers the content of the whole punchcard while reading.
64            Therefore IBM selled the license to reproduce the machine. In
65            1971, the IBM 029 costed about 15.500 DM.
66        </p>
67       
68        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite" id="u1710">
69        <a name="univac1710"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac1710.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch" width="580" height="435" /></a>
70        <p class="bildtext"><b>UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch</b> (VIP)</p>
71        </div>
72       
73        <p>
74           The Univac 1710 VIP was released at
75           the same time like the <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC 9400 mainframe</a>
76           in the year 1969. This device is very fast and versatile and works mostly
77           electronically. Most likely, Univac wanted to trump IBM with this
78           trendsetting device. The device's internals are very elaborate, but offer
79           many advantages, compared to usual apperatures at that time:
80           <br/>It featured a core memory with 12 x 80 x 2 cells for both data and programs. It could
81           handle two programs and one data storage. Programming
82           was performed automatically once program cards have been inserted, and
83           programs could be changed at the touch of a key. The device furthermore
84           featured program-controlled printing during punching.
85           Keypunching errors were electronically corrected, since cards were punched
86           only after all entries were in storage. Verifying and correction comprised
87           a one-pass operation. Verified cards were uniquely notched while error
88           cards were automatically ejected to a separate stacker.
89           <br/>The device also features a large illuminated digital display that
90           indicates which program is in control, furthermore the device could be
91           used for subsequent card labeling. However, the device had always
92           mechanical problems: The type wheel print was of bad quality and the
93           card feeding could easily stop working when the adjustment wasn't
94           perfectly fitting.
95    </p>
96
97       
98        <h3>Sorters</h3>
99
100    <div class="box center">
101        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm" name="backlink-sorter"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter" width="361" height="287" /><img style="margin-left: 2px;" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.offen.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter (without cover)" width="215" height="287" /></a>
102        <p class="center">
103            <b>IBM 082 punch card sorter</b>, Built since 1949
104            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
105         </p>
106    </div>
107
108    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
109        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm083.jpg" alt="IBM 083 punch card sorter" width="602" height="630" /></a>
110        <p class="bildtext">
111            <b>IBM 083 sorter</b>
112            <br/>Compared to the IBM 082 the sorting mechanics were greatly improved. The machine can sort 1000 cards
113            per minute. Much more than 16 cards per second are not possible, due to the mechanic's inertia. This
114            type was built since 1958.
115            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
116        </p>
117    </div>
118       
119        <h3>Collators</h3>
120
121    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
122        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm" name="backlink-ibm077"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm77.jpg" alt="IBM 077" width="450" height="526" /></a>
123        <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM punch card collator 077</b></p>
124        </div>
125       
126        <p>
127            The picture above shows the back of a collator, year of manufacture 1959.
128                The collector reads 480 cards per minute. It is capable of changing the
129                order of the cards, looking for copies (and seperating them out) or
130                comparing two stacks and finding out the differences. Compared to
131                today's database storages this card collator is a kind of mechanical
132                database query language interpreter.
133        <!--<br/>The programs are plugged together on a patch panel. Thus they can easily be changed. -->
134        <br />The electronics comprises of relays and camshafts which control
135             switches. Early engineers had to use oilcans for the bearing's
136             maintenance as often as a checking device.
137             <br />The programs could be changed by replacing the programing field.
138             <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm">The function of the punch card collator</a>
139    </p>
140
141    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
142         <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-mischer.jpg" alt="Bull punch card collator 56.00" width="450" height="536" /></a>
143         <p class="bildtext"><b>Bull punch card collator 56.00.</b></p>
144    </div>
145       
146        <p>
147            This very big device features very much chrome and almost 1000 relays,
148                assembled to allow developers to implement varoius mixing algorithms
149                with wired panels. Thus collating and sorting could be performed in only
150                one working cycle. Depending on the task, the device could process about
151                250 - 500 cards per minute.
152    </p>
153       
154        <h3>Card interpreter</h3>
155       
156    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
157         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_548.jpg" alt="IBM 548" width="450" height="509" />
158         <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM 548</b></p>
159    </div>
160       
161    <p>
162            A huge punch card interpreter made by IBM. This machine can label 60 cards
163        per minute in 60 cols and two rows, according to the settings which you can set.
164    </p>
165
166</div><!-- end of content -->
167<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/menu.inc.shtm" -->
168</body>
169</html>
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