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Termine aktualisiert und u9200-pannel erneuert

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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'univac9200';
3        $version = '$Id: univac9200.php 896 2016-01-10 21:16:43Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'UNIVAC 9200, UNIVAC 9300';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8    <h2>UNIVAC 9200 - the first</h2>
9       
10        <p>The Univac 9200 (Univac 9300) is a punch card computing data center from 1966. It is
11           uncommon that such old devices are completely preserved, even all the
12           manuals are available. This system was stored for over four years in the museum
13           archives until we moved it with a freight company into the museum, next
14           to the <a href="univac9400.php">UNIVAC 9400</a>.</p>
15           
16        <p>After moving the devices with a trucking company to the museum building,
17           the restoration started with cleaning all the devices, initially removing the typical
18           old, rotten noise-absorbing mats at the very first. They have been replaced by
19           brand new cellular rubber.</p>
20
21    <p>We expect most of the problems to be with the mechanical parts in the cabinets.
22       Already we have removed the transportation locks and replaced some bearings,
23           drive rollers and belts. The card puncher features 15 timing belts, for instance.
24           The card reader (500 cards/minute) works again and the puncher mechanics are
25           now executable, too. The processor link to these auxillary devices is another
26           issue and will be checked in the near future.</p>
27
28                <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
29                        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/u9300-1.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 9200" width="850" height="440" />
30                        <p class="bildtext">
31                                <b>UNIVAC 9200</b> electronic data processing system, with its components (left
32                                to right): bar printer, cpu, "electronic cabinet" (power supply and plated wire
33                                memory), card reader, card puncher.
34                        </p>
35                </div>
36               
37        <p>For aesthetic reasons, we also repainted the cabinets.</p>
38        <p>We will address the bar printer at a later time. In contrast to the already
39       mentioned devices, the printer cannot be controlled manually, so we will
40           have to start up the processor, too. This will be a buggy job.
41           But all the work is not for nothing, <!-- sic! gute uebersetzung -->
42           since the system is really unique, featuring punch card assembler programming.</p>
43
44        <p>We will continously update this page about the progress of the reparation
45           until the device is fully functional again.</p>
46
47        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
48        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac9200.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 9200" width="700" height="368" />
49                <p class="bildtext"><b>UNIVAC 9200</b> electronic data processing system, uncovered while being restored</p>
50        </div>
51               
52               
53        <b id="cards">UNIVAC 9200/9300 Software</b><br>
54<p>Often it is sheer luck that helps saving unique artifacts from scrap. In this
55case a curious student at the Goethe University discovered strange objects in a
56building and informed us. It turned out that these devices were a <a href="/en/computer/punchcard.php#u1710">UNIVAC 1710</a>
57
58card puncher and a cabinet full of punched cards containings programs for our
59UNIVAC 9200. The punch cards, about 65000 pieces, contain programs which were
60developed between 1967 and 1975 at the institute of mathematics and applied
61computer science. We will surely revive some of these old programs on our
62UNIVAC system. <br>
63 The rescue action was actively supported by the University of Frankfurt and
64the "FITG" (Frankfurt) whon we would like to thank for their efforts.</p>
65        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
66<img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/lochkarten.jpg" alt="65.000 punch cards" width="700" height="174" />
67                <p class="bildtext">24 boxes containing more than 65000 punch cards extend our software library</div>
68               
69<p>NB: One punch card can hold up to 80 characters - that makes about 80 bytes
70per card. Thus 65000 cards correspond to about 5 MB which is roughly the same
71amount of data that a modern digital camera produces for a single picture.
72Stored on punch cards 5 MB weigh about 160 kg while the cabinet housing the
73cards has a volume of about 0.5 cubic meters (about 500 liters of volume).</p><br><br>
74
75
76<h2 id="u9200"><b>UNIVAC 9200</b> - the second</h2>
77
78<div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
79                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/u9200-1.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 9200 mainframe" width="850" height="404" />
80                <p class="bildtext">The new Univac 9200</p>
81        </div>
82
83<p>It is nearly unbelievable: Since September 2015 we have a second UNIVAC 9200
84in the museum! It is sheer luck when such a precious old machine survives so
85many years (1967 to 2015) without any major damage at all. This particular
86machine was stored under near ideal conditions in the cellar of a
87municipality before it found its way to our museum where it will be restored
88to running condition again. Fortunately, the machine was professionally
89decommissioned so all necessary cables are still there and intact - this is
90true luck since often cables just get cut during decommissioning of large
91computers.<br>
92
93The machine is different in some respects to our other machine of the same
94type: The bar-printer is slower (we expect a higher quality of print outs due
95to that fact), the memory is expanded to 16 kB as compared to 8 kB of
96the other machine, and the punch unit is a rare "Read-Punch". This device is
97capable of reading pre-punched cards and punching results onto the very same
98cards.
99<br>
100By the experience repairing the first U9200, the repair of the second UNIVAC 9200 took only a few weeks:  It is fully operational since January 2016."
101</p>
102<p class="small">We would like to thank the municipality of Rheine and in particular Mr. M.
103Lange, who donated the machine to the museum.</small>
104
105
106        <h3 id="blog">Restoration Blog (the first UNIVAC 9200)</h3>     
107        <p class="small"><b>17.01.2010:</b> There were some mice in the power supply and printer; they
108           bit thorugh some small cables.
109        <br><br><b>16.02.2010:</b> After locating two defective resistors the power supply is
110           running again. Now we can use punch card devices from the CPU. Actually
111           we cannot read nor punch data.
112        <br>Now there is another malfunctioning device: The <a href="storage-media.php#plated-wire-storage">
113           plated wire storage</a> does not work. We are trying to get it working at least partially,
114           replacing it with a new self-made solid state memory. As you can read on our
115           <a href="/en/devices/plated-wire-storage.php">detailed description of the
116           plated wire storage</a>, this type of memory has always been very error-prone.
117        <div class="desc-right">
118                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/u9200pannel.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 9200 Front palen" width="500" height="382" />
119                <p class="bildtext" style="width:500px;"><b>UNIVAC 9200 front panel:</b> 160
120                states of processor and periphery can be indicated with light bulbs and
121                selected via switches.</p>
122        </div>
123        <p class="small"><b>15.04.2010:</b> The boot process of the device is still crashing. There is
124            an error message from the printer without any reason. We are trying to
125                locate this error.
126        <br><br><b>02.05.2010:</b> A broken thyristor (hammer driver) raised the
127            "printer error" message. Data integrity was the most important consideration at the
128                time. If only one of the 140 printer columns is not working correctly, the whole
129                printer goes offline to avoid any wrong output.
130        <br>><br><b>10.05.2010:</b> We managed to get the plated wire storage online. We
131            can even start some small test programs via the input switches, but there are
132                bugs while running. This is perhaps the only device that still uses the old
133                plated wire storage. Anyway, we are planing a replacement.
134        <br><br><b>12.06.2010:</b> After calibrating the optical card reader, we could read in
135           and execute small programs in the data memory. We will report about the high
136           security level of the card reading process later. Surprisingly the plated wire
137           storage still works.
138        <br><br><b>16.06.2010:</b> The card puncher doesn't work any more. 30 years of inactivity
139           are a long time for computers, too.
140           <br>On the other side, we could execute a printer loop program. The huge printer
141           starts up, but doesn't print yet. After two minutes, a thermal fuse triggers.
142           
143        <br><br><b>25.06.2010:</b> The fuse is triggerd by a broken centrifugal switch from the
144           printer engine start-up windings. Therefore the winding was always on and
145           constantly dissipated current. Now the engine is running, but print commands
146           are not yet executed.
147           <br>We also found a bug in the memory. Now all 8kB seem to run completely
148           error-free.
149        <br><br><b>30.06.2010:</b> We located another bug in the printer logic (faulty
150           transistor). For the first time in 30 years, the bar printer works and is capable of
151           printing files from various punch cards. The type face looks good.
152           <br>Now we turn to the damaged printer.
153           <div class="desc-right">
154                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/messen-am-memory.jpg"  width="400" height="313" />
155                <p class="bildtext" style="width: 400px;"><b>Backside of the UNIVAC 9300:</b> With a storage oscilloscope and a logic analyzer logic states are measured</p></div>
156           
157        <p class="small"><b>05.08.2010:</b> After replacing a broken transistor and injecting some oil,
158           the puncher is up and running! Now we are able to dublicate punch cards.
159           Unfortunately we had to disable the error checking functions since the device
160           detected a non-existing error when punching. Locating this error is the next
161           problem.
162           
163        <br><br><b>26.08.2010:</b> Locating the bug in the device's internal error checking
164           of punched data was hard work. The computer compares the data which should be
165           punched with the position of the hammers in the punch station in a very
166           complex way. One of the 24 inductive sensing elements was broken,
167           furthermore a transistor which amplifies the particular induced voltage was
168           out of order and there was a cold solder joint. Finally the complete sensing
169           station had to be recalibrated to deliver all information simultaneously to
170           the comparing element. The adjustment has only a margin of 5 microseconds.
171           After this repair, all duplicated punch cards are checked too. If there
172           is a wrong punch hole, the computer stops immediately (an event that occurs
173           extremely rarely now).
174           
175        <br><br><b>19.10.2010:</b> After all test programs were run successfully, we can now declare
176the machine as being fully operational. The next step will be constructing a
177new memory system which is necessary since the original plated wire memory is
178fragile and it is doubtful that it would survive the years to come without
179errors.
180
181<br><br><b>Feb. 2012:</b> Redesigning the memory using modern semiconductor circuits is more complicated
182than expected initially. Despite a lot of effort concerning the timing of
183all signals involved in the RAM's logic the new RAM card is still not working.
184Further tests and modifications will be necessary. Fortunately the original
185wire memory is still working perfectly.
186
187        <br><br><i>This blog will be irregulary continued.</i>
188        <hr>
189       
190<p class="small">We would like to thank Dr. Frank Berger and Dr. Juergen Steen (both from the
191"Historischen Museum Frankfurt) for their suuport and many spare parts they
192donated for this machine. Repairing such complex circuitry would be next to
193impossible without known good boards for swapping etc.</small>
194
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