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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'univac9400';
3        $version = '$Id: univac9400.php 694 2014-12-03 15:44:01Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'UNIVAC mainframe computer, data center';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8    <h2><b>UNIVAC 9400</b> mainframe computer, data center</h2>
9
10    <div class="box center" style="position:relative;">
11        <!-- Direkt kopiert von deutscher Datei, siehe dort -->
12       <div style="position:absolute; top:0px;"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/panorama-rechts.jpg" alt="Photography of the complete Univac 9400 installation" /></div>
13        <div style="height: 387px;">&nbsp;</div>
14    </div>
15
16    <!-- old picture
17    <p class="center">
18       <img src="/shared/photos/start/univac9400.jpg" alt="Photography of Univac 9400" width="595" height="446" />
19    </p>
20    -->
21
22    <ul class="univac-thumbs">
23       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/panorama.php" name="backlink-link" title="Big photography from the left hand"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/panorama-links.klein.jpg" alt="picture 1: Univac 9400 from the left" height="107" /></a></li>
24       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/frontpanel.php" name="backlink-frontpanel" title="big picture from the frontpanel"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/frontpanel.klein.jpg" alt="picture 2: Univac 9400 frontpanel" height="379" /></a></li>
25       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/console+uniservo.php" name="backlink-console" title="big picture showing the console/Uniservo"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac//uniservo-12-16.klein.jpg" alt="picture 3: console und uniservo" height="165" /></a></li>
26       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/cardreader.php" name="backlink-cardreader" title="big picture showing the card reader"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/kartenleser.klein.jpg" alt="picture 4: card reader" height="178" /></a></li>
27       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/cardreader.php" name="backlink-cardreader2" title="big picture showing the card transporter (card reader)"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/kartentransport.klein.jpg" alt="picture 5: card transport in the card reader" height="318" /></a></li>
28       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/bandcontroller-lamps.php" name="backlink-bandcontroller" title="big picture showing the band controller"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/bandcontroller-laempchen.klein.jpg" alt="picture 6: indicator lights from the band controller" height="220" /></a></li>
29       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/discdrives.php" name="backlink-discdrives" title="big picture showing the disc drives"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/plattenlaufwerke.klein.jpg" alt="picture 7: disc drives" height="178" /></a></li>
30       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/highspeed-printer.php" name="backlink-highspeedprinter" title="big picture showing the Univac 9400 highspeed printer"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/schnelldrucker.klein.jpg" alt="picture 8: highspeed printer" height="232" /></a></li>
31       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/typical-board.php" name="backlink-board" title="big picture showing a typical board/module"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/typisches-board.klein.jpg" alt="picture 9: typical board" height="161" /></a></li>
32       <li><a href="/en/computer/univac9200.php" name="backlink-univac9300" title="big picture showing the Univac 9300"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/univac9300klein.jpg" alt="picture 10: Univac 9300" height="127" /></a></li>
33       <li><a href="/en/devices/univac9400/advertisement.php" name="backlink-advertisement" title="read an advertisement for the Univac 9400"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac/werbung.klein.jpg" alt="picture 10: Univac 9400 advertising brochure" height="344" /></a></li>
34    </ul>
35
36    <!--
37     !-
38     !-  This page/version 5.5 is based on a translation
39     !-  performed by Bernd Ulmann [www.vaxman.de]
40     !-
41     !- My translation is probably still readable at
42     !-  www.technikum29.de/en/dev/preparation/univac9400.php
43     !-
44     !- v5.7.12: Panoramafoto, daher Bildteile als erstes vorgestellt,
45     !- Ullmanntext aber gar nicht veraendert.
46     !-->
47
48      <p>The picture on top shows from right to left:</p>
49
50      <ul>
51          <li>the main processor cabinet</li>
52          <li>the system's console</li>
53          <li>the Tape Control Unit</li>
54          <li>UNISERVO 12</li><!--<li>a tape controller with two associated tape drives,</li>-->
55          <li>UNISERVO 16</li>
56          <li>UNISERVO 12</li>
57          <li>the Disk Control Unit</li> <!-- disc controller-->
58          <!--<li>two storage cabinets holding 128 kB each,</li>-->
59          <li>the high speed printer of type 768</li>
60          <li>three disk drives of type 8425</li>
61          <li>a punch card reader</li>
62      </ul>
63
64    <!-- ulmann text begins -->
65    <p>This truly one-of-a-kind machine, a UNIVAC 9400 mainframe, is the heart of
66       one of the most impressive exhibitions of the museum. In the 1960s it was used
67       in the computer center of an industrial complex located in Cologne. Following
68       its replacement by new hardware, the system was given to a school in Cologne
69       where it served for many years helping the computer science teachers.</p>
70
71    <p>In September 2005 it found its final place in our museum. A regional German
72       television program made a feature about the difficult transport of the machine
73       from Cologne to the museum. This transport involved two trucks due to the sheer
74       amount of equipment (a UNIVAC 9300 system was part of the transport as well)
75       and its weight. We would like to thank UNISYS Germany for taking over the cost
76       of this transport. </p>
77
78    <p>Our UNIVAC 9400 is something special since it is operational (again) -
79       only very few mainframes from this era are still in an operational condition
80       due to the complexity and difficulties of maintainance and operation. This
81       restoration was facilitated by the facts that our machine was in near mint
82       condition when we got hold of it and it came with full documentation. Currently
83       there are some minor hardware bugs which will be fixed in the near future.
84       <br />The system on display is a stripped down version of the original setup
85       due to space constraints in the museum. As a positive side effect this leaves many
86       peripherals as spare parts ensuring the possibility to keep this machine up and
87       running in the future.</p>
88
89    <!-- alte Geraeteliste, urspruenglich von B.Ulmann uebersetzt, auf das alte Photo
90         bezogen (/shared/photos/start/univac9400.jpg) -->
91    <!--
92
93      <div style="margin-left: 238px; padding-left: 50px;"><ul>
94          <li>the <a href="/en/devices/univac9400/console+uniservo.php" title="read more about hte console and uniservo">system's console</a>,</li>
95          <li>the <a href="/en/devices/univac9400/frontpanel.php" title="see a detailed picture from the processor's frontpanel">main processor cabinet</a>,</li>
96          <li>two storage cabinets holding 128 kB each,</li>
97          <li>a tape controller with two associated tape drives,</li>
98          <li>a <a href="/en/devices/univac9400/discdrives.php" title="a big picture from the disc controller and disc drives">disk controller with two attached disk drives</a>,</li>
99          <li>a <a href="/en/devices/univac9400/highspeed-printer.php">high speed printer</a> and, finally,</li>
100          <li>a <a href="/en/devices/univac9400/cardreader.php" title="further reading and viewing about the punchcard reader">punch card reader</a>.</li>
101      </ul></div>
102    -->
103
104      <p>The UNIVAC 9000 series dates back to the mid 1960s. All machines
105         from this series were implemented using small scale integrated
106         circuit (DTL technology, a predecessor of the well known TTL
107         chip family). All DTL chips used only contain a few simple gates -
108         mostly OR and NOR circuits. Much of the logic has been implemented
109         using silicon diodes which allowed the construction of large arrays
110         of AND gates.</p>
111
112      <p>This makes our UNIVAC 9400 a member of the so called
113         "third generation" (first generation being tube based, second
114         generation using discrete transistors).
115         <br />
116         The members of the UNIVAC 9000 family were:</p>
117
118         <!-- The following list is originally continous text... -->
119     <ul class="justify">
120            <li>The UNIVAC 9200, a "powerful, card oriented electronic data
121            processing installation" with a memory capacity of up to 16 kB.</li>
122            <li>The UNIVAC 9300 featured tape and disk drives and could be
123            equipped with up to 32 kB of main memory (the museum has one of
124            this systems in storage).</li>
125            <li>Finally, the UNIVAC 9400 was sold in 1969 as a "flexible
126            tape and disk oriented computer system featuring multi
127            programming, real time capabilities and versatile possibilities
128            for data telecommunication". (The picture on the left shows an
129            "advertising brochure" for this system dating back to 1969.)</li>
130         </ul>
131
132      <p>As an interesting note all systems of this series used a magnetic
133         thin film memory, a then revolutionary development which,
134         unfortunately turned out to be the most error prone part of
135         these computers. One of the main advantages over
136         then conventional core memory was the non-destructive read
137         out which allowed for shorter memory read cycle times.</p>
138         
139      <p>Due to the insufficient reliability of this memory system the
140         complete subsystem was eventually replaced by an even more modern
141         semiconductor memory system using some of the first memory chips
142         made by INTEL. More than 1200 of these chips were necessary to
143         implement the 256 kB of our machine.</p>
144
145      <p>Like many other mainframe systems the UNIVAC 9400 features a
146         channel system for the connection of peripheral equipment. Slow
147         peripheral devices (like the punch card reader, printer, etc.)
148         are connected using multiplex channels while high speed devices
149         (like disks and tapes) are connected using selector channels.
150         These selector channels allow for transfer rates of up to
151         333 kB/s - a remarkably transfer rate for this time.</p>
152
153      <p>The standard software for the UNIVAC 9400 included many
154         libraries, an assembler and compilers for the languages FORTRAN
155         and COBOL. In addition to that a report generator
156         (comparable to IBM's RPG-II and RPG-III implementations) was
157         available to facilitate commercial data processing.</p>
158
159      <p>One of the most impressive parts of a UNIVAC 9400 is the system
160         console featuring literally hundreds of incandescent lights.
161         This makes it possible to monitor about 600 internal register
162         bits while operating and maintaining the machine. After working
163         with such a system for some time, the operating personnel got a
164         feeling for usual and unusual light patterns which helped a
165         great deal to track down bugs.</p>
166
167      <!-- absatz hinzugekommen zu v5.7.5 -->
168      <p>By now many programs started running again. For example you can
169         make this mainframe create you an up-to-date chart for your
170         personal bio-rhythm of the next four weeks. This time-consuming
171         task is perfomed by a program written in COBOL.</p>
172
173      <!-- absatz hinzugekommen zu v5.8BETA -->
174      <p>The price of an UNIVAC mainframe system was incredibly high and would have paid for a chain of new cars with a length of 2,3 kilometers.
175         <a class="go" href="/en/devices/univac9400/costs.php">Incredible:
176         UNIVAC 9400 = 470 cars (Volkswagen Beetle)</a></p>
177
178      <!-- Absatz hinzugekommen/zuletzt geaendert 05.07.09 -->
179      <div class="box right">
180         <a href="http://www.unisys.com/"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/unisys_tag.gif"  width="142" height="75" /></a>
181         <p class="bildtext"><small>We would like to thank to the UNISYS
182            Corporation for funding all trucking of the big machines.
183            We would also like to thank Dr. Jürgen Steen from the
184            <a href="http://www.historisches-museum.frankfurt.de/">Historical
185            Museum Frankfurt</a> for lending several UNIVAC boards. Reparations
186            are quite difficult without comparative boards.</small></p>
187      </div>
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