Changeset 356 in t29-www


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Timestamp:
Mar 8, 2013, 1:51:02 PM (7 years ago)
Author:
heribert
Message:

NCR446 Text (englisch) stark erweitert und angepasst

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1 edited

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  • en/computer/commercial.php

    r299 r356  
    2323        </div>
    2424       
    25     <p>Apart from desktop calculators other small computer systems were introduced to solve commercial problems. The <b>NCR 446</b> on display is a so-called accounting machine and consists of a paper tape reader and punch, a keyboard and an IBM Selectric typewriter as printer. It was built 1968 in Germany. Due to its core memory and woven ROM the machine is freely programmable and thus very versatile.
     25    The <b>NCR 446</b> is a typical example of a 2nd generation computer
     26(transistorized).
     27It was developed 1966/67 in Germany at the "National Registrier Kassen GmbH"
     28in Augsburg by four engineers fresh from the university. One year later their
     29development was finished and the system announced.<br>
     30
     31The architecture is rather unique. Programs are stored on a paper tape while
     32operations are controlled by means of a threaded wire ROM. The system was
     33sold as a accounting machine but was not limited to that area of application.<br>
     34
     35The system not only contains the paper tape reader for the program control,
     36but also two paper tape readers for input data, one paper tape punch, a
     37keyboard, and an IBM ball-head typewriter. <br>
     38
     39This system was quite expensive. The basic model without a paper tape punch
     40and without the additional paper tape readers for data input was sold for about
     4135,000 DM (about 18,000 EUR) - about as much as three mid-class cars would
     42have cost at the same time.<br>
     43
     44The NCR 446 was the first "small" commercial system which was able to print
     45text as well as numerical values. Such a machine was used by structural
     46engineers to perform the necessary calculations and directly generate a
     47printout that could be used by the customer. (Competing systems like the
     48Olivetti Programma 101, 203 could only print plain numbers on a small strip
     49of paper.)<br>
     50
     51Watching the operation of the machine is a great experience. Things like the
     52calculation of a square root allow the viewer to get an idea of the
     53underlying algorithm. Since the program is stored on a paper tape, every step performed
     54by the machine can be seen.<br>
     55
     56<!-- A glimpse of the internal structure of the machine can be seen
     57<a href="...">here</a>. -->
     58
     59
    2660       <br/>Clicking on the picture yields a <href="/en/devices/ncr446.php">more detailed picture</a></p>
    2761        <!-- das war B.Ulmann. Meine Übersetzung (alt):
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